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The Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven are the Same Thing

I. The Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven are the same thing.
The phrase "kingdom of heaven" is exclusively used in Matthew's gospel.
The phrase "kingdom of God" is used a few times in Matthew and John, and extensively in Mark and Luke.
A simple comparison of parallel verses in Matthew, Mark, and Luke show beyond question that the kingdom of heaven and the kingdom of God are interchangeable terms. For example:
The mystery of the kingdom of heaven/God.
Mat 13:11 - He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given.
Mar 4:11 - And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:
Luk 8:10 - And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.
The parable of the mustard seed.
Mat 13:31-32 - Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field: 32) Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.
Mar 4:30-32 - And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it? 31) It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth: 32) But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it.
Luk 13:18-19 - Then said he, Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and whereunto shall I resemble it? 19) It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his garden; and it grew, and waxed a great tree; and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.
The parable of the leaven.
Mat 13:33 - Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.
Luk 13:20-21 - And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God? 21) It is like leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.
Jesus himself used the terms interchangeably.
Mat 19:23 - Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven.
Mat 19:24 - And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.

It's obvious that these are two different names for the same kingdom: God is in heaven and reigns from heaven; therefore it is called the kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven.
If it was suspected that these were two different kingdoms, the fact that they are described identically in parallel passages demands that they are the same kingdom.
Things that are both equal to something are equal to each other.

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